The amniotic tissue is the inner layer of the placenta, which surround a baby during pregnancy. The amniotic tissue is the only tissue that is universally appropriate for transplant, as it is naturally designed for acceptance by the immune system. It is separated easily into two distinct layers: the epithelial cells, which can be removed with cell scraping, and the amnion layer, which is the fetal side.
There are two types of cells present in the amniotic tissue: stromal cells and epithelial cells. Both of these have features that are very similar to stem cells. The tissue is also high in collagen and biologically active cells. They are both able to differentiate in vivo and can both protect and stimulate injured tissue to treat disease or injury. Amniotic tissue is widely available and is not tumorigenic, making it an excellent choice for interventional therapies when more conservative approaches have been ineffective.
Amniotic tissue has been used in medicine for over a century. Cryopreserved amniotic tissue has been shown to help with regenerative healing while also cutting down on inflammation, adhesion, and scarring. Other methods use dehydrated tissue, which offers the advantage of tissue that can be safely used for a longer period of time.
Amniotic tissue is collected through elective donation of tissue during elective Cesarean births. Donor suitability is determined with the aid of medical, physical, and social screening to ensure that every product procured is safe for transplantation into patients. Amniotic tissue has been shown to be effective in the treatment of chronic pain. It also has the benefit of shorter recovery times and lower levels of side effects.